How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (2023)

What you need to know about designing an accessible toilet: Guidelines with dimensions, regulations, features, materials and a 3D BIM model ready for download

Need to design an accessible toilet which is compliant with your local standards? This article provides all the tools and sizing criteria to design more inclusive architecture. Although each country has its own accessibility guidelines, we’ll be referring specifically to building regulations available for the US and UK, as well as to guidelines for the ASEAN Member States in a section at the bottom of the article. There’s also a 3D model with DWG CAD resources (complete with floor plans, cross-sections, 3D views, renderings, etc.) ready for you to use for your projects.

To open the file, start off by downloading Edificius – the 3D Building Design Software, the BIM architectural design software used to create the project, renders and the project drawings available below.

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (1)

Accessible toilet – Interior render produced with Edificius

Important features to consider when designing an accessible toilet for users with disabilities

When designing an accessible toilet, it’s important to consider a set of parameters that are essential for its proper functioning and accessibility, being some of the conditions recently required in many countries to achieve equal opportunities and social inclusion of people with disabilities.
Crucial features of inclusive spaces design allow wheelchair users and individuals with a range of (physical) disabilities to use the toilet as independently and safely as possible.
In fact, the purpose of an accessible toilet should be to enable persons with reduced mobility to easily access facilities that are different from regular toilets in terms of layout, available space, equipment, flooring, lighting etc., hence removing disabling barriers and restrictions that might be present.

Accessible toilets regulations and standards

British accessibility standards

The most relevant guidance for providing accessible toilets is to be found in:

  • British Standard 8300 (2009) – Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people.
  • Approved Document M: Access to and use of buildings – Volume 2: Buildings other than dwellings (Section 5: Sanitary accommodation).

USA ADA construction guidelines for Accessible toilets

The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 includes specific accessibilityguidelines and design requirements for building accessible, or ADA-compliant, public or commercial toilets. They can also serve as a general guide for safe, user-friendly, accessible design when ADA compliance is not required.

As always, please check your local building regulations prior to commencing any construction work. Remember that local code authorities may impose additional or modified requirements.

The essential features of an accessible toilet

Generally, the most important elements to consider when designing comfortable and efficient spaces for all toilet users are:

  1. a raised height Water Closet
  2. handrails
  3. outward swinging door with an emergency release mechanism
  4. toilet door signs for the disabled
  5. drop down hinged rail
  6. a wash basin with boxed in pipes and with lever-handle taps or with activation sensors
  7. a mirror to enable people to see themselves in the standing or seated position.

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (2)

Essential elements to consider when designing an accessible toilet – Layout produced with Edificius

Disabled toilet dimensions and manoeuvring space

One of the most important points of designing an accessible toilet is to verify that physical access to the compartment is good. The manoeuvring space should enable wheelchair users to adopt various transfer techniques that allow independent or assisted use.

(Video) Accessible Bath Design

Standard cubicle dimensions – UK

Compulsory dimensions for a disabled toilet state that the room needs to be at least 220cm in length and 150cm in width.
These are of course just the minimum requirements. Dimensions larger than these will give a wheelchair user a larger turning circle, providing greater comfort. Document M contains a diagram of a compliant disabled toilet, which should help you understand if you’re meeting all the necessary requirements.

Sufficient manoeuvring space outside the door to the WC – 150cm x 150cm should be, however, regarded as the minimum.

A standard WC layout meets the needs of some people but not all with a minimum 45cm space between the edge of the WC and the door swing. An enlarged WC aids some people in maneuvering due to the additional space provided by the 75cm space between the edge of the WC and the door which opens outwardly.

Accessible stall dimensions – USA

According to ADA Guidelines for Accessible toilets, standard toilet stalls with a minimum depth of 56 in (142 cm) shall have wall-mounted water closets. If the depth of a standard toilet stall is increased at least 3 in (75 mm), then a floor-mounted water closet may be used.

Standard stall dimensions for a single-user should be 59 in (150 cm) by 95 in (214 cm).

Rotating Space

Some people need carer support, space, a hoist to transfer from wheelchair to toilet or a bed to lay on to remove clothing, use a catheter, have a continence pad changed. The minimum space required, from the edge of the seat to the nearest frontal obstacle, should be at least of 65-75 cm (UK)

A single wheelchair must be able to rotate freely inside a bathroom. For this kind of motion, a clear floor space of at least 60 inches in diameter is required, allowing a 180-degree turn (USA).

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (3)

Accessible toilet with standard dimensions: floor plan created with Edificius

For the accessible toilet project that we have created, we have used standard dimensions that you can edit according to your national or local requirements. You can create conforming floor plans and other project drawings in just few minutes using Edificius – the 3D Building Design Software.

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (4)

Accessible toilet with minim dimensions: A-A cross- section created with Edificius

Accessible door

The door must open or swing outwards and be fitted with a horizontal closing bar fixed to the inside face to make it easier for the user to close the door behind themselves independently. The door opening itself must be a minimum of 90cm wide, but ideally 95cm wide to allow easy access by a wheelchair user.


In the USA, ADA Facilities and elements are required to be identified by using the international symbol of accessibility.

In order to accommodate a wheelchair, doorways should be a minimum of 32″ wide. If the doorway is located in the typical hallway and requires turning a wheelchair, you’ll need a 36″ door.

How to design an accessible toilet: corridors, halls, passageways

Sanitary accommodation for people with disabilities should be provided in a convenient and accessible part of a building to which wheelchair users have independent access. A wheelchair user should not have to travel more than 40m horizontally to reach a suitable toilet.

All walks, halls, corridors, aisles and other passageways should be wide enough to allow people spaces that are part of an accessible route shall comply with ADA, where the minimum clear width of an accessible route required is 36 in (915 mm) except at doors.

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (5)

Accessible toilet with minimum dimensions: B-B cross- section created with Edificius

Accessible toilet Water Closet

Disabled toilet heights can vary from 44cm up to 50cm, but they’re most commonly installed at 45cm.

Some wheelchair users find it difficult to use a standard height WC seat and, for them, it is important that the WC pan can accept a variable height toilet seat riser.

In the USA, water closets must be 17 to 19 inches from the floor (43cm to 48.5cm), measured from the floor to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

Handrails / Grab bars

Grab rails are a basic feature of any accessible toilet. They provide crucial support, stability and balance for anyone transferring onto the toilet.

According to Document M, a unisex wheelchair-accessible toilet or compartment will have four grab rails: two horizontal bars on either side of the WC, two vertical grab rails on either superior side of the basin. When it is a corner WC, one horizontal grab rail is mandatory on the wall next to the WC, whether wall mounted or drop-down. An additional drop-down rail is needed between both when the adjacent grab bar is more than 40cm from the toilet; this would be the case of peninsular WCs. On the open side of this WC, a drop-down rail is normally fixed (32cm from the centre of the toilet).

An ADA-compliant grab bar must be fully anchored and have a smooth surface that can be easily grabbed. The diameter or width of the gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar shall be 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in (3.2 cm to 3.8 cm), or the shape shall provide an equivalent gripping surface. Grab bars must be installed between 34 and 38 inches above the floor, and there must be a separation between the grab bar and the wall surface of at least 1 1/2 inches. Grab bars must have round edges and must return to the wall (or other anchor point) so there are no exposed ends.


Sinks in accessible toilets should be placed at a lower height, making them useable for anyone seated in a wheelchair.

In the UK , any wheelchair-accessible washroom has at least one washbasin with its rim set at 72cm to 74cm above the floor.

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Ideally, accessible basins are designed to be either wall hung with space to get underneath, inset (placed onto a counter top), or with a semi-pedestal.

Washbasin taps are either controlled automatically or can be operated using a closed fist, e.g. by lever action. The pipes or traps should not be boxed in to avoid making it difficult for a wheelchair user to get close enough to the sink to use it properly. The sink must have either lever-handle taps or a tap that has a sensor, so that those with impaired dexterity of their hands can still make use of it.

Consider solid-surface lavatory systems with fully integrated sinks at various heights. Only one bowl in a multi-bowl sink needs to offer minimum knee and toe clearances, so these multi-height lavatory systems combine an ADA-compliant sink with higher sinks.

Create your own project cross-section using Edificius – the 3D Building Design Software and find out how you can address all of these aspects in a highly productive workflow, faster and with increased quality of work.


A mirror located either above the wash basin or on the opposite wall to enable people to see themselves in the standing or seated position.

A mirror, of width 40cm and height 100cm, set 60cm above floor, should be provided.

  • Bottom Line 600 mm – top edge 1600 mm (located away from washbasin)
  • Bottom line 1600 mm (located above washbasin)
  • If mirrors cannot be extended down to the upper edge of the washbasin,
    they should be tilted forward

The ADAAG states that mirrors need to be mounted with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface no higher than 40 inches above the floor, with the top edge at a minimum of 74 inches from the floor. A full-length mirror in the restroom fulfills the ADA requirement for mirrors if it’s not possible to mount the mirror at 40 inches above the floor.

Disabled toilet emergency alarm

The room should be fitted with a pull cord activating an assistance alarm.

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Rendered cross-section

Ground and Floor surfaces

Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible rooms and spaces including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curb ramps, shall be stable, firm, slip-resistant. The flooring should also contrast visually against the walls.

Options for Document M disabled toilet compliant flooring include non-slip vinyl or non-slip floor tiles.

In addition, shiny ceramic tiles and floors should be avoided. They might cause reflection and glare, which may be visually confusing.

Accessible toilet Lock

There should be a lock on the inside operable with a closed fist, and an emergency release facility on the outside.

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Locks and other operating devices on accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy to grasp with one hand and does not require tight grasping, tight pinching, or twisting of the wrist to operate. Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms, and U-shaped handles are acceptable designs.

ASEAN provisions for the disabled

The development of an APTS (ASEAN Public Toilet Standard) is one of the measures developed within the framework of the ASEAN Tourism Strategic Plan (ATPS) 2011-2015. The ATPS 2011- 2015 engages the ASEAN member states to develop and implement standardized tourism services and it includes standards for accessibility.

According to the APTS application of Universal Design in Public Toilet should be provided in accordance with standards, codes or laws adopted by the local government/authority/entity having jurisdiction. When no requirement there exists, the following general guidelines are recommended.

Accessible route: to be provided which shall be usable by an unassisted wheelchair user. It should extend continuously from the closest street boundary or car parking space to the accessible toilet and be provided with railings. If elevated, it shall have a ramp with railings;

Accessible entrance: a door should be placed that is minimum 80 cm wide. It shall be opened from the inside out or be a sliding door;

Accessible cubicles: the cubicle’s minimum size shall be no less than 1.5 m wide and 2.2 m deep for the whole length. Horizontal handrails shall be fixed at the rear, sidewall adjacent to the toilet bowl and at the opposite side of the toilet bowl (drop down moveable handrail) at a height not exceeding 80 cm above the floor;

Accessible WCs: WCs shall be set between 43 cm and 48 cm above the floor, measured to the top of the seat at the nose of the pan and fitted with a hinged seat no more than 2.54 cm thick unless required otherwise. Suggested side distance of the WC from the wall, not exceeding 50 cm and total distance from the back wall till the nose of the WC 75 cm (Greed, 2007);

Accessible cubicle toilet paper dispensers: toilet paper dispensers should be located on or in the wall adjacent to the side of the toilet bowl. Dispensers should not stick out more than 10 cm into the minimum cubicle dimensions and shall be located to allow the paper to be dispensed within 30 cm of the nose of the toilet bowl and between 43 cm and 70 cm off the floor.

A sensor activated waste bin (hand-free) and sanitary bin with liners should be located at the side of the toilet bowl, within immediate reach;

Accessible cubicle washbasins: washbasins shall be located as close as possible to the WC to allow handicapped people to reach it easily – thus avoiding contact of dirty hands on various surfaces – at a distance that does not to interfere with a person transferring from the wheel chair to the toilet bowl. Washbasins, therefore, should be set at least 110 cm from the nose of the toilet bowl and shall be mounted at a maximum height of approximately 82 cm off the floor to allow wheelchair users to easily perform washing and grooming activities without being disturbed by any fittings and/or fixtures. Washbasins may be installed in counters or be free standing and attached to walls. All interior water supply and drainage piping should be concealed whenever possible;

The colour of the wall tiles for accessible public toilets should adopt strong colour contrast to cater to the needs of the visually impaired.

Fixtures: Cubicles containing WCs should be no less than 90 cm wide and 152.4 cm deep clear of opened doors (see section 1, accessible cubicles and accessible ambulant cubicles for appropriate cubicle dimensions for the disabled and ambulant people). All cubicles should be provided with locks or latches to allow for privacy. Although accessible from the inside only, authorised outside access key access may be necessary in case of emergencies. Cubicle doors and partitions should be tightly fit so as to avoid any openings and without legs to allow for easy cleaning underneath. Cubicle partitions should extend no less than 2 m above the floor level to allow for appropriate privacy and comfort.

How to design an accessible toilet: 3D objects and blocks

Complete your projects with all the elements that you need to designing an accessible toilet. You can download them from our online BIM Objects Library for free.

How to design an accessible toilet with a BIM software (7)

Download: 3D model

Here is the 3D model produced with Edificius – the 3D Building Design Softwarethat you can download for free.

(Video) Autodesk BIM 101: Intro to Building Information Modeling

Download the project 3D BIM model(.edf file format)


What are the dimensions for a disabled toilet? ›

The recommended dimensions of a disabled toilet room are; at least 2200mm deep x 1500 wide.

What does an accessible toilet need? ›

Ambulant accessible toilets are the most basic. They provide some accessible features such as a higher toilet pan, grab rails, lever taps/ paddle flush, an outward-opening door and an emergency call bell, but they don't have enough space to accommodate a wheelchair.

What is the code for toilet design? ›

Toilet Spacing and Design

According to toilet code clearance code requirements, you must install your toilet: At least 15 inches from its center to any side wall or partition. No closer than 30 inches center to center from an adjacent fixture. With a clearance of at least 21 inches from a wall, fixture or door.

What is the difference between accessible and disabled toilet? ›

What is the difference between a disabled toilet and an accessible toilet? A designated toilet for disabled people is described as an 'accessible' toilet. There are no disabled toilets even though many people call them this in day to day life.

How can I improve my public toilet design? ›

Install toilets with automatic flush sensors. ► Install modern ventilation system to reduce moisture accumulation. ► Use lid-free trash cans. ► Appoint a custodial staff for daily cleaning.

How can I make my bathroom accessible for elderly? ›

10 Tips for a Senior-Proof Bathroom
  1. #1: Update Lighting. ...
  2. #2: Add Grab Bars and Safety Rails. ...
  3. #3: De-clutter & Organize. ...
  4. #4: Install a Walk-In Shower & Hand-Held Shower Head. ...
  5. #5: Add a Shower Chair or Transfer Bench. ...
  6. #6: Keep Items Within Easy Reach. ...
  7. #7: Use Non-Slip Mats & Ditch Throw Rugs. ...
  8. #8: Raise the Toilet.

What is the minimum turn around space for an accessible toilet? ›

Turning Spaces

An ADA compliant bathroom must have adequate floor space to allow for a person who uses a wheelchair to easily turn around. The turning space either be a circle with a 60-inch diameter or a T-shaped area.

How many inches is an ADA toilet? ›

It all comes down to the height of the toilet seat. Standard toilet seats are usually no more than 15 inches from the floor, while the ADA requires toilets that are at least 17 inches and a maximum of 19 inches from floor to seat. These are generally called “comfort height” toilets.

What is standard toilet height vs ADA? ›

ADA-compliant chair height is a minimum of 17 inches and a maximum of 19 inches from the finished floor to the top of the toilet seat. Standard height toilets are typically 14 to 15 inches in height.

What makes a disabled toilet? ›

Accessible toilets are specifically designed to provide enough space to accommodate wheelchair access and assistance when transferring from wheelchair to toilet. Accessible toilets include features such as lower mirrors and washbasins, contrasting toilet seat colour, grab rails and braille signage.

What height should an accessible toilet be? ›

Hot on Left, Cold on Right OR Hot on Top, Cold on Bottom. Top of toilet seat to ground should be 460mm – 480mm. Front of toilet bowl to back wall should be 790mm – 810mm. Centre of toilet bowl to side wall should be 450mm – 460mm.

How high should an accessible toilet be mounted? ›

ADA toilet height is 17-19 inches above the finished floor (AFF) measuring to the top of the seat. ADA also requires that toilet seats cannot be sprung to automatically return to a lifted position.

Should a disabled toilet have a lid? ›

The WC should never be fitted with a seat lid. Individuals who have a visual impairment require a good contrast between the sanitary ware and surrounding areas to be able to see the fitments etc. A good contrast is also required so that the grab rails stand out against the background on which they are placed.

What are the ADA restroom design guidelines? ›

The ADA Standards require that unisex toilet rooms, where provided, have privacy latches and contain at most one lavatory, one water closet, and one urinal (or a second water closet) (§213.2. 1).

Can anyone use an accessible toilet? ›

An accessible toilet is designed to meet the majority of needs of independent wheelchair users* and people with mobility impairments, as well as the additional requirements of people with bowel and bladder conditions (such as colostomy bag users).

What does an ADA toilet look like? ›

The toilet should fit with 60" inches diameter to accommodate the wheelchair turning space. The water closet or toilet compartment center line must measure 18" inches from the side wall with the side wall grab bar. The ADA toilet must be 17" - 19" inches high from the floor to the top rim, and includes toilet seats.

What is the symbol of accessible toilet? ›

The international symbol of a wheelchair user to represent disabled people is used on toilet doors to indicate an accessible toilet.

What makes a good toilet design? ›

Avoid sharp corners or edges. Coved tiles or PVC strips should be provided along these edges as far as possible. Access panels to pipe ducts should be located as far as possible in inconspicuous areas. Mirrors should be flush with the wall surface.

What is the common problem in public toilet? ›

Dirty restroom Floors

Additionally, the corners become an ideal breeding ground for disease-causing pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi which are hazardous for users' health.

How do you calculate toilet number? ›

One toilet should be provided for every 1-6 guests. Two toilets should be provided for every 7-12 guests. Three toilets should be provided for every 13-18 guests. Each of these toilets should also have a washbasin provided nearby.

What is a fully accessible bathroom? ›

For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) recommends that accessible bathrooms be at least 30-inches by 48-inches in dimension to provide parallel or forward access to bathroom fixtures. Additionally a 60-inch diameter is needed for a standard-size wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn.

How do you make a dementia friendly bathroom? ›

There is bench space beside the basin for easy visibility of soap. Contrasting colours of basin, bench surround, floor and walls make the basin more visible and easier to recognise. A mirror above a bathroom basin should be large enough and low to allow visibility for people either sitting or standing.

What is the ADA turning radius for toilets? ›

One: Turn-Around Radius

The clearance route typically seen is known as the 5-foot turning radius. This means that there is a 5-foot circle of clear floor space for a patron in a wheelchair to turn around within the restroom stall itself.

What is the smallest ADA bathroom possible? ›

In general, minimum accessible bathroom size is 60 inches wide by 56 inches deep plus clearance space for fixtures. Adding more fixtures or door swings will demand more space and a larger bathroom. ADA standards do not specify an exact room size.

What is the minimum square footage for an ADA bathroom? ›

What's the minimum required space for an ADA compliant bathroom? Unfortunately, the answer to this question isn't so clear-cut. With a shower, the smallest ADA bathroom could be about 54 square feet. Without a shower, the bathroom can shrink to 37.5 square feet.

Can an ADA toilet have a push button flush? ›

Users need to be able to activate the toilet handle without twisting or straining the wrist and with minimal force, less than 5 pounds. Flush buttons sometimes need more than 5 pounds of force, but most that use a lever-activated flush valve can meet the ADA toilet flush handle requirements.

Do ADA toilets need to be elongated? ›

When selecting the water closet in commercial construction the IPC requires the water closet bowls be of the elongated type, rather than the round type you usually see in residential homes. Also, they require that the elongated bowl have a seat that is of the hinged open-front type.

What is the difference between a regular toilet and an ADA compliant toilet? ›

There are specific items that are required for an ADA toilet: A raised toilet seat for easier sitting and standing for the disabled. Tool-free removable arms, for more flexibility to users. Added height - there is an additional 17"-18" over a standard toilet.

What is the ADA clearance between sink and toilet? ›

30-inch by 48-inch access to the sink (the door can't swing into this rectangle). The measurement starts from the point where a person has 9-inch vertical clearance for their feet and 27-inch vertical clearance for their knees. The center line of the toilet must be between 16 and 18 inches from the side wall.

What height toilet is best for seniors? ›

The best toilet height for seniors is typically around 17 to 19 inches from the floor to the top of the seat. These are considered a comfortable height for most adults, as it allows them to sit down and stand up easily without straining their legs or back.

What is the politically correct term for disabled toilet? ›

What are disabled toilets called? Accessible toilets are sometimes referred to as disabled toilets, however, accessible toilets is the correct term.

Why do disabled toilets need a key? ›

It might seem counterproductive to have disabled toilets locked, but on most occasions, this is an effort to protect them from misuse and vandalism. In many cases disabled toilets often double up as a baby changing facility, further emphasising the need for controlled access.

Why are disabled toilets so low? ›

This is so that people can reach the flush from a seated position in their wheelchair where the transfer space is. These are essential to help people maintain balance either when standing or when transferring between a wheelchair and the toilet.

Are comfort height toilets ADA compliant? ›

A comfort height toilet is known as an ADA toilet and meets Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements for adults (17 to 19 inches between the floor and the toilet seat). It's safer for those who have trouble getting up from a low seat, such as older adults or people with disabilities.

Is it better to leave toilet lid open or closed? ›

Every gram of human feces contains billions and billions of bacteria, as well as viruses and even some fungi." The easiest way to avoid this nastiness coating your bathroom is, simply, to close the toilet seat. "Closing the lid reduces the spread of droplets,” Hill explained.

Why do disabled toilets have blue seats? ›

These Coloured Toilet Seats are made from easy-clean plastic in a vibrant blue colour. Ideal for assisting individuals living with dementia to use the toilet independently as the contrasting colour is recognisable and can act as an orientation prompt.

Does a disabled toilet need a hand dryer? ›

A dryer that doesn't dowse disabled users with water when they dry their hands is one of the minimum standards for disabled washrooms.

What are the layout dimensions for a toilet? ›

The size for a separate toilet compartment should be at least 36x66 inches with a swing-out or pocket door. Code Requirement: The minimum size for a separate toilet compartment is 30x60 inches.

What is the rules of bathroom layout? ›

Guideline: Plan a clear floor space of at least 30” from the front edge of all fixtures (i.e., lavatory, toilet, bidet, tub, and shower) to any opposite bath fixture, wall or obstacle. Building Code Requirement: A minimum space of at least 21" must be planned in front of lavatory, toilet, bidet, and tub.

What are the three parts of a toilet supposed to do? ›

Simplistically, the toilet works in three parts: The tank dumps two gallons of water into the bowl, starting the siphon. Through gravity, a siphon pulls waste and water down into the closet bend and out to the sewer. Then, the tank is filled up with fresh water, ready to flush again.

Why is toilet design important? ›

The Right Toilet and Bath Design Creates the Space You Need

This is precisely why the subtleties of toilet and bath design are actually quite important–the proper floor layout and bath/toilet design ensures there is enough walking space, storage space and general flow.


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